Folklore in Uzbekistan
Uzbek Folklore includes the folk songs and dances through which the social customs, culture, lifestyle, beliefs, aspirations and expectations of the people are reflected. The Norbek Bakhshi & Doston folklore ethnographic band of Uzbekistan is quite popular for hosting many a popular shows in the country.
Being a vital link to the Uzbekistan arts and entertainment, the folklore of the country provides a detailed insight into the core culture of the place. Folk music is the prime medium through which Uzbekistan presents its inherent features to the outer world. Categorized into two main divisions such as ceremonial and daily life songs, the folk music of Uzbekistan covers the entire gamut of the country's various socio-cultural aspects.
As a part of the Uzbek folklore the ceremonial songs are based on themes of family, wedding, history and love. Whereas the daily life songs of Uzbek folklore center around work, social protest and many others.
It is said that, Tamerlane who was a Mongol warrior and his grandson Ulughbek who enriched the astronomy branch of science, were the two prime figures who had a significant contribution towards the Uzbek folklore.
There is no denying the fact that today, Uzbek folklore has become an important symbolization of the cultural dynamism of the country.
Music in Uzbekistan
Uzbek national and oral-professional music has 4 basic local styles -Khorezm, Ferghana-Tashkent, Bukhara-Samarkand, and Surkhandarya -Kashkadarya, which came as the result of ethnic allocation. Medieval city in the region had a tradition of settling in quarters according to one's occupation. This was common for musicians as well, they lived in the "street of singers", "street of composers" etc.
Uzbek songs can be divided into songs of certain times and certain circumstances (ritual - "Yor-Yor", "Kelin salom", calendar - "Navruz", labor - "Mayda", "Yozi", and others), and those executed at any time.
Koshuk is a household song structured with a melody of a small range, covering one or two stanza of the poetic text. Lapar mdyaila a re executed in support of comic dances, games. Ashula is a lyrical song with a developed melody of a wide range and syncope rhythm.
The basis of Uzbek national music is diatonic, but there are elements of chromatics as well. Variability and modulation are widely applied in basic national songs. The rhythm of national songs is quite various.
Dancing in Uzbekistan
The Uzbek national dance has been preserved in two forms: traditional classical and national (folklore) dance. Ferghana ("Katta yuin"), Bukhara ("Maqom raqsi"), and Khorezm ("Ufori maqom") schools of dance are popular for their classical features. The national dance is very diverse. It is cheerful, lyrical, and dramatic with its regional differences, and is mainly preserved in mountainous areas of the country.
The rich variety of Uzbek musical instruments reflects the diversity of musical styles performed on them. Small ensembles of mixed instruments are at the heart of the classical maqâm tradition. Characteristic instruments in such ensembles include long-necked fretted lutes (tanbur, dutar, tar, rubab, sato), spike fiddle (ghijak), side-blown flute (nay), struck zither (chang), frame drum (dayra) and a small clarinetlike instrument made from reed (qoshnay). Another typical ensemble consists of long trumpets (karnai), loud oboes (surnai) and, sometimes, kettledrums (naghora), which are an obligatory presence at festive and ceremonial occasions. In rural regions, epic singers accompany themselves on a short fretless lute (dombra), while amateur musicians may play the Jew's harp (chang-kobuz) or a simple variety of spike fiddle (kiak).