Temurid Tashkent

At the end of XIV century and at the start of XV century, Tashkent was under the supervision of Temur and Temurids. In 1404 Amir Temur bequeathed the town to his grandson Ulughbek as a free property. At this time the city turned into a fortressed castle on the border between the valley and the nomadic desert. Its territory had extended, manufacturing, trade and culture had developed. Monuments such as Registan, temples in Sheykhantaur encemble and cathedral mosques had been built during that period. Archeological discoveries reveal that the local traditions of the architectural monuments were harmonized with the cultural traits of neighboring eastern countries.

The battle for the throne started among the Temurides and resulted in Tashkent is falling into the hands of Mongol khan Yunuskhan in 1485 and the city became his residence. But Yunuskhan’s period didn’t last long and he died in Tashkent in 1487. After Yunuskhan his son Sultan Mahmudkhan took the throne but his rule also didn’t last long. In 1503 Sheybanikhan had taken Tashkent and he gave the governance of Tashkent to Suyunchkhujakhan and Kuchlukkhan.

Despite the general decline of the cities of the Old Silk Road, the town once again grew prosperous under Sheybanids in the late 15th and 16th centuries and most of its surviving architectural monuments date from that period. The city had been surrounded by new walls. Architectural monuments arose, some of them (Sheykhantaur temple, Kukaldosh and Baroqkhon medresses) are still standing today. Starting from the Sheybanid period, Tashkent’s name was seldom referred in socio-political events. In 1558 Tashkent was able to resist Kyrgyz-kaysak blockade. In 1579 Bukhara khan Abdullakhan II occupied the city. In 1588 the city population rebelled against the viceroy of Abdullakhan II, the khakim of Tashkent vilayet Uzbekkhan. The rebels for some time kept Kazakh sultan Jonali as their khan, but not much time passed before the rebellion had been suppressed. In 1597 Kazakh khan Tavakkal (died in 1598) took the city. Not much time later, Tashkent again passed to Bukhara khanate: Imamqulikhan from Ashtarkhaniys who, having beaten the Kazakhs in 1611, appointed his son Iskandar as Tashkent’s viceroy. The city population rebelled against Iskandar and he was killed. A furious Imamqulikhan then took severe revenge from Tashkent’s population and terrible massacre ensued. In the first quarter of XVIII century Tashkent again passed into the hands of Kazakhs and was governed by Kazakhs until 1740.

In the middle of XVIII century, though the city had passed from hand to hand, it had been still divided into four parts: Sheykhantaur, Sebzor (for some time it was called as Qaffol-Shoshiy), Kukcha (Shaykh Zainiddin) and Beshyoghoch (Zangiota) dahas and each had been ruled independently by khakims. In the history of Tashkent it was called “Chor hokimlik” – “Four kingdomship”. In 1784 Yunuskhuja, the khakim of Sheykhantaur daha, took over governing of the other three dahas, putting an end to Tashkent’s feudal disintegration and organized an independent Tashkent state. Though the Tashkent state had been under the pressure of Middle Juz sultans, especially under Kokand khanetes, it survived 20 years of life. In order to strengthen his government’s political and economic status, Yunuskhuja tried to establish ties with the Russian state. In autumn of 1802 he sent a Tashkent ambassadorial delegation of 7 people, headed by Prime Minister Mullojon Okhundomullo Makhsum to St.Petersburg. The main focus of the deputation was to set up trade agreements with the Russian government, asking for 500 soldier’s rifles, 1000 pouds (a poud is 16 kilos) of copper, and to send a specialist in gun manufacture to Tashkent for a period of 5 years. In 1803 Tashkent ambassadors had been received by Emperor Alexander the I and by the state counselor and minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia graph A. Vorontsov.